A Roth IRA has a lot of advantages with regards to investing, tax reduction, asset protection, and estate planning. Even high-earners should be grateful to Senator William Roth, who was the sponsor of the legislation that established them back in the 1990s.
The Basics of Roth IRAs
Anyone with earned income can open a Roth IRA and contribute up to $6000 per year for the 2020 tax year. If income is sufficient, one can also open a Spousal Roth IRA and contribute another $6000. If you're over 50, those limits are raised to $7000 per year.
Income Limit and Backdoor Roth IRA
There is a contribution income limit, meaning if you have an adjusted gross income more than $139K (single) or $206K (married), you can't contribute. However, there is no income limit to Roth IRA conversions, so that leaves the option for a Backdoor Roth IRA wide open for most physicians.
You contribute to a Roth IRA with after-tax money, but it is never taxed again. You don't pay taxes on capital gains and dividends as the money grows, and it comes out tax-free in retirement. You generally can't access the money before age 59 1/2 (see the exceptions here), but, unlike a 401K or traditional IRA, there are no required minimum distributions beginning at age 72.
Roth IRA Investing Advantages
Roth IRAs are tax-protected. This allows you to invest in tax-inefficient investments, like REITs, TIPS, taxable bonds, and peer to peer lending. You can also buy and sell investments to rebalance, or simply change your portfolio without tax consequences.
More Investment Options and Less in Fees
Unlike a 401K, you are essentially unlimited in the investments you can choose for a Roth IRA. So you can choose the best investments. If you go to a low-cost provider such as Vanguard, you'll almost always pay much less in fees than with your 401K. In investing, you get (to keep) what you don't pay for.
I already mentioned that you get to save a lot of taxes since, after the initial contributions, it is never taxed again. The fact that both pre-tax (like traditional IRAs and 401Ks) and post-tax investment accounts are available allows you to diversify your taxes, minimizing the taxes you pay over your lifetime.
For instance, a resident ought to preferentially use an after-tax investment and an attending ought to preferentially use a pre-tax investment. Roth conversions can be done during years of low income, and then in retirement, tax diversification allows you to minimize the taxman's bite.
In addition, practicing physicians ought to continue to make Roth IRA contributions via the Backdoor Roth IRA, as long as they can max out their tax-deferred options like 401(k)s first.
Roth IRAs are generally protected from your creditors in most states. Many states offer unlimited protection of a Roth IRA.
Many of the steps you do to facilitate estate planning, reduce taxes, or protect your assets have nasty side effects. For instance, some asset protection techniques increase your tax bill or hurt your estate planning efforts. Tax reduction techniques can often hurt your investment return. But with a Roth IRA, you get all these benefits without side effects.
Estate Planning“stretched” by your heirs for an extra ten years of tax-free growth. The assets do count toward the estate tax exemption limit (currently $23.16 million for married taxpayers), but as long as it remains at least that high, it really isn't much of an issue.
Thanks to maxing out my Roth IRAs in residency and during military service, some Roth conversions, and continuing to use backdoor Roths, some of my retirement portfolio will never be taxed again. If you want a great start for your nest egg, I can think of no better vehicle.
How are you using the Roth IRA to diversify and minimize taxes? Comment below!