I don't actually post about whole life insurance (WL) all that much, but the comments on WL posts number in the thousands and go on for years and years after the post is written. Most of the posts address whether or not you should buy a whole life policy (or its cousins, Universal Life and Variable Life). I generally recommend against them, and the insurance salesmen who love to post comments longer than the post itself not only recommend them, but feed their children and pay their mortgage from the commissions (50-110% of the first year's premium) on the sales. They're not happy when WCI readers actually have responses to the myths they're using to sell them. Today, however, I'm going to address a different question that I get in my email box far more often—how to cancel a whole life insurance policy.
Should I Keep or Cancel My Whole Life Policy?
Long-time readers will recall I was once the proud owner of a whole life insurance policy from Northwestern Mutual (NML). It was sold to me as a medical student by a very dear friend who happened to be interning with NML that summer. He subsequently went into another line of work. The policy was not only inappropriate for me, but it was just a terrible policy. What I really needed was a $1 Million, 30-year, level-term policy. What I got was a convertible $280,000 term policy whose rates would go up every 5 years until long after I would be financially independent coupled with a $20,000 whole life policy.
This tiny whole life policy was something like $21 a month. The annual policy fee was relatively huge compared to the premiums, not to mention the premiums were being paid on a monthly basis (even a poor medical student could have come up with $240 all at once if he had known it would improve returns). The policy had a terrible return. After 7 years, I cashed it in for something like $1,100. I had paid in something like $21 * 12 * 7 = $1,764. That's a loss of 38%, or something like -12% per year. It didn't quite track the minimum guaranteed returns in the original illustration, but my returns were pretty darn close to the minimum and a long way away from the projected illustration. The in-force illustration I obtained (just for fun) prior to surrendering it indicated I was still many years away from breaking even.
For a few hundred dollars of ill-gotten profit, NML is partially responsible (along with a mortgage lender, a realtor, and a mutual fund salesman) for unleashing The White Coat Investor on the world. I wonder how much they would love to pay now to get me to take down the whole life posts on this blog given that over 12 million people have visited the site in its first decade and some of the most popular posts are about whole life insurance.
The question we will be addressing today, however, is not whether you should buy a policy. It is what you should do with the one you already have. There are a number of points to consider.
Do You Want or Need a Permanent Life Insurance Policy?
Although 75% of those who purchase whole life policies eventually surrender them, there are a select few who want them and even a tiny percentage who actually need them. If you are one of these people, you should keep your policy.
Examples of people who need permanent life insurance include:
- Someone who will never actually become financially independent (working until death) and will always have someone depending on their income financially
- Someone with an estate tax problem
- Someone with a liquidity problem
- Someone with some legitimate business issues that are best solved with these policies
Even if you don't need a policy, you might want one. Perhaps you can't stand the volatility of higher-returning investments like stocks or real estate. Or perhaps the 3-4% returns you reasonably expect on the policy are adequate for your needs. Or perhaps you're into the whole Bank on Yourself/Infinite Banking thing. If any of this describes you, then you may want to keep your policy, assuming it is actually correctly designed to do what you want it to do. You might be able to improve it by paying annually, changing dividends to offset premiums instead of paid-up additions, or even by purchasing additional paid-up additions, but you probably shouldn't get rid of it.
Keep Your Whole Life Insurance Policy If You've Had It for a Long Time
Whole life has low returns when held for decades. It has terrible returns if only held for a few years. That means that, after a while, the returns GOING FORWARD may not actually be too bad. The terrible returns are heavily front-loaded, and generally follow the period for which commissions are paid to the salesman. If you're past those years, you probably want to keep the policy, even if you don't like it. I think 15-20 years is about the turning point, but one could argue this occurs by year 10, or even sooner. It varies by policy and how much you hate it.
Certainly, you can't argue it is a good idea to keep it just because you've had it for a year or two or five. If you don't want to pay the premiums anymore, then change dividends to offset premiums. If you just want to maximize the return, then purchase paid-up additions up to the modified endowment contract (MEC) limit and make sure you're paying annually. If you don't want to hire someone to evaluate the policy, this post may help you to evaluate your own whole life policy.
If You're Going to Cancel Whole Life Insurance, Do It Now
Whole life insurance works out best when you hold it until death. Once you have decided you are going to cancel a whole life insurance policy, there is no point in waiting a few more years until it breaks even or gives you a certain return you will feel good about. You may want to wait until just before your next premium is due if it means the cash value will be a little higher, but you certainly don't want to pay more premiums on a policy you will drop at some point between now and your death.
Consider the Alternative
Remember that you cannot just consider the policy on its own merits. You also need to compare it to what you would do with the money if you were not using it for life insurance premiums. If you're going to be using the money to max out a 401(k), or even better, get a match in a 401(k), then it is a no-brainer to get rid of it. Likewise, if the alternative is something like maxing out an HSA or a personal or spousal Backdoor Roth IRA. If you, however, are comparing it to a taxable account, especially invested in low-risk assets, or to just spending the money, then it will compare a little more favorably. I often see agents selling whole life policies to doctors that still have 6-8% student loans. That's financial malpractice in my opinion. Heck, paying off your mortgage, even one with a relatively low-interest rate, may provide a better return than whole life, and it's guaranteed.
Get Term Life Insurance in Place First
It should go without saying that you should never cancel a permanent life insurance policy unless you already have sufficient term life insurance in place to meet your needs and wants. It usually only takes a couple of weeks to buy a term policy, but don't leave yourself exposed even for that long. Besides, you might be surprised by something found during underwriting.
Don't Worry About Tiny Policies
When you start talking about getting rid of a policy, the first thing to consider is any possible tax penalties or tax benefits of doing so. For a teeny, tiny policy like the one I had, that just doesn't matter much. My loss was only a few hundred dollars, and the tax benefit on that would be far outweighed by the hassle factor and the actual costs to claim that. If you have a tiny whole life policy, just cancel it.
You may have had one of these purchased for you by your parents, who dutifully paid a few bucks a month on it for two or three decades before presenting all $2,000 of cash value in it to you (and asking you to take over the payments). Be sure to thank them for their thoughtfulness, then cash it out and use the money to fund a Backdoor Roth IRA. You might not want to mention that you did that during Thanksgiving dinner, by the way.
Evaluate Your Options Carefully on a Large Policy
However, if you have paid tens of thousands of dollars in whole life premiums, you probably want to spend a little more time deciding what you wish to do with this policy. If your policy has a large gain, you've probably had it long enough that you should keep it. But if not, you can avoid taxation of that gain (typically taxed at your regular marginal tax rate) by exchanging it into a better cash value life insurance policy, a very low-cost variable annuity (VA), or even long-term care insurance.
The best of those options, in my view, used to be the VA, since buying another cash value life insurance policy most likely entails another fat commission, and most doctors reading this site ought to eventually be able to self-insure any long-term care needs. However, it is not so easy anymore to find a low-cost VA, so even that isn't a great option for a policy with a gain. Unfortunately, you can't even use losses from tax-loss harvesting to offset the gains since gains in a life insurance policy are not considered capital gains.
Preserving Your Loss
A much more likely scenario for someone who has only been paying premiums for a few years and now realizes they bought a “pig in a poke”, is that you are way underwater on your “investment” at this point. Perhaps you've been paying premiums of $20,000 per year for five years, and now have a cash value of $75,000. You could just surrender the policy, take your $75K to invest elsewhere, and consider the $25K a “stupid tax”. Or, you could have Uncle Sam share your pain a little bit.Transamerica and Jefferson National has been purchased by Nationwide. This exchange not only preserves the cash value tax-free, but also preserves the basis. You can then let the VA grow until the cash value equals the basis, and subsequently surrender the VA with no tax due. Years ago, you could actually immediately deduct losses in a VA (but not a loss in life insurance), but that loophole has been closed now for several years. So if you do this, you'll need to hold the VA for a while (paying its additional expenses) in order to take advantage of some tax-free growth. With an expensive enough VA, even that wouldn't be worth doing.
Another Option If You Want to Get Rid of Your Whole Life Insurance
Yet another option is to just exchange that whole policy into a modified endowment contract. This can eliminate any need for you to make additional payments into the policy, a big reason why people want to dump their policies. Then you simply leave it alone until your death and have it be part of the inheritance you leave your heirs or your favorite charity. Note that if you go down this path, you can't use the cash value for a better use nor can you borrow against the policy later in life.
There are lots of options when you want to cancel your whole life insurance policy. Spend time evaluating them or you may make another mistake almost as big as the one that got you into this mess. But quit beating yourself up about your decision to buy it; many of us have done that.
What do you think? Have you had this dilemma? Did you cancel your whole life insurance policy or keep it? Comment below!